Also known as oral contraceptives or the Pill. This medicine usually contains two types of hormones, estrogens and progestins.
One pill is swallowed daily at around the same time. Stops a woman’s egg from fully developing each month. The egg can no longer accept a sperm and fertilization is prevented.
>99% (when taken correctly, everyday around the same time)
No need for preparation before sexual activity. Easy to take.
Patients who are over 35, smoke, have severe high blood pressure or liver disease have a higher risk of blood clots and strokes.
A flexible, transparent plastic ring. Contains the hormones estrogen and progestin.
Inserted deep into the vagina and worn for three weeks. Removed for one week for menstruation before inserting another. Suppresses ovulation, keeping the ovaries from releasing an egg. Also thickens cervical mucus to keep sperm from reaching the egg.
No need for preparation before sexual activity. Low maintenance. Doesn’t require a personalized fitting.
The Ring carries the same risk as the Pill in women who smoke, are over 35, have severe high blood pressure or liver disease. The main risk in these patients is blood clots and strokes.
An injection that contains the hormone progestin.
Injection suppresses ovulation, keeping the ovaries from releasing an egg. Also thickens cervical mucus to keep sperm from reaching the egg.
Every 3 months
No need for preparation before sexual activity. Very low maintenance.
There may be some loss of bone density over time. It may cause weight gain, headaches, breast tenderness and depression. It may take up to 10 months after stopping the shot to regain fertility.
A thin plastic patch that sticks to the skin. The sticky part of the patch contains the hormones progestin and estrogen.
Applied to the skin and left on for one week. Suppresses ovulation. Also thickens cervical mucus to keep sperm from reaching the egg.
No need for preparation before sexual activity. Low maintenance.
Smoking while using the patch greatly increases the possibility of having a heart attack or stroke.
A small T-shaped device that is inserted inside a woman’s uterus by a medical practitioner. There are two kinds: copper and those that secrete progestin.
Induces a foreign-body reaction in the endometrium. This inflammatory process is toxic to sperm.
Copper IUD – NO
IUD with hormone – YES
No need for preparation before sexual activity. Very low maintenance. Copper IUDs provide protection for up to 10 years. IUD with hormone is good for 5 years.
In extreme cases IUD’s may lead to uterine perforations. IUD’s may contribute to lower abdominal pain, cramping and abnormal bleeding. Increases risk of pelvic infections. Increases risk of ectopic pregnancies.